Wednesday, March 22, 2006

Concessive Clauses

Ok, time for a quick review of Latin concessive clauses. The following is taken from section 313 of Allen and Greenough with the examples omitted.

The particles of Concession (meaning although, granting that) are the following: quamquam, quamlibet, quamvis, quantum vis, ut, net, cum, licet, etsi, tametsi, etiamsi.

Some of these take the Subjunctive, others the Indicative. Thus,--

a. Quamvis, ut, and ne take the Subjunctive.
NOTE.--Quamvis means literally, as much as you will....The subjunctive with quamvis and ne is hortatory; that with ut is of uncertain origin.

b. Licet (properly a verb) takes a Substantive clause in the Subjunctive.
NOTW.--The subjunctive with licet is by the sequence of tenses necessarily limited to the Present and Perfect tenses.

c. Etsi, etiamsi, tametsi, even if, take the same constructions as si.

d. Cum concessive takes the Subjunctive.
NOTE.--In early Latin cum (quom) concessive usually takes the Indicative.

e. Quamquam introduces an admitted fact and takes the Indicative.

f. Quamquam more commonly means and yet, introducing a new proposition in the indicative.

g. The poets and later writers frequently use quamvis and quamquam like etsi, connecting them with the Indicative or the Subjunctive, according to the nature of the condition.
NOTE.--Even Cicero occasionally uses quamquam with the Subjunctive.

h. The Relative pronoun qui is often used with the Subjunctive to express concession.

i. Concession is often expressed by the Hortatory Subjunctive without a particle.

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